What is ozone layer depletion and its effects PDF?
Ozone layer depletion is the thinning of the ozone layer present in the upper atmosphere. This happens when the chlorine and bromine atoms in the atmosphere come in contact with ozone and destroy the ozone molecules. One chlorine can destroy 100,000 molecules of ozone. It is destroyed more quickly than it is created.
What are the major causes of ozone layer depletion?
The main cause of ozone depletion and the ozone hole is manufactured chemicals, especially manufactured halocarbon refrigerants, solvents, propellants, and foam- blowing agents (chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), HCFCs, halons).
What is ozone and its depletion?
Ozone Depletion. When chlorine and bromine atoms come into contact with ozone in the stratosphere, they destroy ozone molecules.
What are the effects of ozone layer?
Ozone layer depletion causes increased UV radiation levels at the Earth’s surface, which is damaging to human health. Negative effects include increases in certain types of skin cancers, eye cataracts and immune deficiency disorders.
How we can protect ozone layer?
How can we protect the ozone layer? Avoid the consumption of gases dangerous to the ozone layer, due to their content or manufacturing process. Some of the most dangerous gases are CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), halogenated hydrocarbon, methyl bromide and nitrous oxide. Minimize the use of cars.
How the ozone layer is healing?
The ozone layer is slowly healing. According to the latest Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, completed in 2018, portions of the ozone layer have recovered at a rate of 1% to 3% per decade since 2000. At this rate, Northern Hemisphere and mid-latitude ozone are likely to recover completely in the next ten years.
How ozone layer is formed?
Ozone is naturally produced in the stratosphere by a two- step reactive process. In the first step, solar ultraviolet radiation (sunlight) breaks apart an oxygen molecule to form two separate oxygen atoms. In the over- all process, three oxygen molecules plus sunlight react to form two ozone molecules.
Can we make artificial ozone layer?
Ozone is naturally produced through certain types of chemical reactions. It is however less known that ozone can be artificially produced, so that it can be used for water treatment. Ozone generators can create ozone artificially by means of extremely high voltages or by means of UV-light.
What happens if there is no ozone?
This natural sunscreen, known as Earth’s ozone layer, absorbs and blocks the majority of the sun’s UV radiation. Without this barrier in place, all of the radiation would reach Earth, damaging the DNA of plants and animals, like us humans. Without plants, the food chain would collapse.
Why is the ozone hole over Australia?
Firstly, the ozone layer in the mid-latitude (e.g. over Australia) is thinned, leading to more UV radiation reaching the earth. Secondly, the ozone layer over the Antarctic, and to a lesser extent the Arctic, is dramatically thinned in spring, leading to an ‘ozone hole’.
Is Australian sun stronger?
During summer, the Earth’s orbit brings Australia closer to the sun (as compared to Europe during its summer), resulting in an additional 7% solar UV intensity. Coupled with our clearer atmospheric conditions, this means that Australians are exposed to up to 15% more UV than Europeans.
Why is the ozone layer thinner in New Zealand?
The ozone layer over New Zealand is thickest during spring and thinnest during autumn. The increase in UV transmission caused by the thinning of the ozone layer during summer is compounded by the sun being more directly overhead, so that UV has a shorter path through the atmosphere.
Which country has the strongest sun?
Where is the highest UV in the world?
A “perfect storm” of ozone-destroying chemicals sent cancer-causing UV-B radiation soaring at the top of a South American volcano in 2003, a new study reports. On Dec. 29, 2003, a world-record UV index of 43.3 was detected at Bolivia’s Licancabur volcano.
Which country has the highest UV index?
What is an unsafe UV index?
A UV Index reading of 11 or more means extreme risk of harm from unprotected sun exposure. Take all precautions because unprotected skin and eyes can burn in minutes. If outdoors, seek shade and wear protective clothing, a wide-brimmed hat, and UV-blocking sunglasses.
What level of UV is safe?
The World Health Organization’s Global Solar UV Index measures UV levels on a scale from 0 (Low) to 11+ (Extreme). Sun protection is recommended when UV levels are 3 (Moderate) or higher.
Why is New Zealand sun so strong?
In high summer, the sunshine in New Zealand is really strong. Earth’s orbit takes it closer to the sun during the southern summer than during the northern summer. There is less pollution in the southern-hemisphere to block the UV rays. The sun’s burning strength is measured by the UV index.
Is the sun stronger in Ireland?
The time of day – UV rays are stronger in Ireland from 11am to 3pm. The time of year – UV rays reach the earth all year round but in Ireland exposure is usually greatest from April to September. Altitude – The higher up you go the higher the level of UV radiation.
How long does SPF 50 last?